The cattle and buffalo play a significant role in rural economy of Sri Lanka, providing milk, meat and, power to a varying degree depending on the location. of dry zone land under irrigation and liberalization of the input and output markets, several OFC farming systems evolved in the province. Permanently cultivating homestead with mono-crops without fallowing (Goda hena), cultivation of OFC in irrigated rice fields, OFC cultivation in … The monsoon from May to October is known as summer monsoon. Chena cultivation as practised in the Dry Zone for many centuries under the prevailing physiographic and demographic conditions no doubt enabled the most effective and economic use of highland. An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm, BioScience, Volume 67, Issue 6, June 2017, Pages 534–545; Supplemental material 2 table S1b. Fernando, Prithiviraj & Jayewardene, Jayantha & Prasad, Tharaka & Hendavitharana, W. & Pastorini, Jennifer. Dry & Intermediate Zone Some years the erratic weather (dry) has affected a higher percentage of the agriculture farming community in Northern, Eastern, Uva and North Central provinces in Sri Lanka. This had been the most favourite wood for making pianos, black pieces of chess and harpsichord keys largely due to the exceptional shine it produces after polishing. Ecotourism promotion. Conserving Sri Lanka's Ecological Integrity. The central hills of the country divide Sri Lanka into three major climatic zones by acting as a barrier to the monsoon winds. Dark black coloured, hardwood is so dense that is sinks in water; the harder part of the tree is covered with a soft, pale-coloured outer layer. The dry zone forests with riverine areas show much wider species diversity than the forest without riverine vegetation. Today it is a protected flora species and is restricted to any form of usage. Current Status of Asian Elephants in Sri Lanka. At higher elevations they change to montane rain forests. 99% guaranteed whale watching trip with southern Sri Lanka, all-inclusive $99 P.P, Sri Lanka summer monsoon from May to October, Trees and plants of dry zone forests of Sri Lanka, Fauna species of Sri Lanka dry zone forest, Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya Rain Forest Sri Lanka, Sinharaja Rain Forest-The Largest Extent of Gondwana Forest in Southern Asia, Sigiriya Sanctuary, One Of The Best Places For Bird Watching, 4 Sri Lanka wildlife safari/s in a single circuit, Most notable animal species in these forests is the Elephant, providing the possibility to observe wild animals, Colonial Rulers In Ceylon & Its Religious Treachery, Sri Lanka Splendour-7 days $490 P.P Sigiriya, Dambulla, Polonnaruwa, Kandy, Beach, Insight Into Sri Lankan Culture- 2 days tour Sigiriya, Dambulla, Kandy, Pinnawala, S, Galle one day private tour with Bentota, Madu safari from Colombo and west coast, Sinharaja one day private tour from 140+ hotel, all-inclusive $55 P.P, 14 days Sri Lanka grand tour with cultural triangle, hills country, Yala safari and beach holiday, Adventure filled thrilling 6 days-white water rafting, bird watching, rainforest trek, wildlife safari, whale watching, trekking, hiking…, 2 days tour with full day Yala safari, Galle Fort, Bentota, boat tour, south coast, 5 – Day Sri Lanka Heritage Private Tour (all-inclusive)-US$ 580 P.P. We used MacKinnon's (1997) map of original forest cover to separate the dry evergreen forests of Sri Lanka from the wet-zone moist forests and represented the former in the Sri Lanka Dry-Zone Dry Evergreen Forests [IM0212]. Drypetes sepiara, which known as wira in Sinhala and virai in Tamil is a medium-sized tree that grows up to 5 meters average, dominates the sub-canopy of these forests and the most notable characters of the tree are the gnarly trunk and small purplish fruit. The highest of these inselbergs is Ritigala (766 meters), which lies north of the Central Highlands. This forest type can occur up to 600m from the sea level. The typical ground cover is scrub forest, interspersed with tough bushes and cactuses in the driest areas. Cassia species such as Cassia fistula (English: Indian laburnum, Sinhala:Ehela, Tamil:Tiru kontai) and Cassia roxburghii (English: red cassia, Sinhala: ratu wa, Tamil:vakai) are two main cassia species show a wide distribution in the dry zone forests. 6 months of the year from May to October, northern and eastern Sri Lanka coming under the influence of monsoon. Sri Lanka is an island which is endowed with numerous ecosystems from montane forests in mountains to large dry zone forests in the lowlands, and beyond. Deforestation, overexploitation plus slow growth rate, has led it to almost extinction in the jungle. Plants grow very fast from November to February when rainfall is heavy, but stop growing during the hot season from March to August. It is being ranked as the best quality wood for carving. Intermediate Zone. Yala, Wilpattu is the most famous national parks and both are located in the dry zone in the country. Even the first capital (Anuradhapura 4th century BC) was in the heart of the dry zone vegetation in the northern plain while the southern capital (Ruhunu Rata) was housed in the dry zone in southern Sri Lanka. Mainly focused on the dry zone trees and plants. Dry Zone Intermediate Zone: Potato. Dharmasena – National Consultant/ Agriculture and Water Management 2. Diospyros ebenum (English: ebony, Sinhala:kaluwara,Tamil: kurungali) is the rarest indigenous flora species with highest economic value in these forests. Dry zone forest grows from the beaches of the island and spread up to 600 meters above the sea level in the direction of the central mountain range. Intermediate Zone (Badulla District) Dry Zone (Jafna District and Kalpitiya) Wet Zone (Nuwara-Eliya District) Red Onion . The ecoregion receives 1500–2000 mm of rainfall annually. Dry monsoon forest across the country covers a wide range of flora species and these forests consist of more than 100 different tree species and 40-60 in any given forest patch depending on the area. The natural vegetation of the dry zone is adapted to the annual change from flood to drought. Rainforest is to be found in the areas where the rainfall is high due to the south-west or winter monsoon. Gajah. Mixed dry evergreen forest is the most widespread plant community. Most of the national parks are located in the dry zone lowland in the island and these parks generate huge income for the country by providing the possibility to observe wild animals. Don’t expect to see flowers here like peradeniya or hakgala. The primary water source for these places is the north-central monsoon, which brings rain from May to October. Dry monsoon forest across the country covers a wide range of flora species and these forests consist of more than 100 different tree species and 40-60 in any given forest patch depending on the area. The Mahaweli Master Plan in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka has earmarked 365,000 ha of land for development of agriculture in 13 systems identified under the Mahaweli Development Programme. The major difference between winter monsoon and summer monsoon is the amount of rainfall. Flora of Sri Lanka Tropical rainforest covers much of the southwestern part of the island, where teak and ebony grow.The plant life ranges from that of the equatorial rain forest to that of the dry zone and the more temperate climate of the highlands. Download : Download full-size image; Fig. Satin wood Chloroxylon swietenia (Sinhala: burutha, Tamil mutirai), is one of the giant trees in the dry zone forest that grows up to 30 meters, and it is most famous for making cabinets. The construction work of the dry-zone botanic garden commenced on 20th July 2006. Dry zone home gardening - Consist of an assemblage of plants, which may include trees, shrubs, vines, and herbaceous plants, growing in or adjacent to a homestead or home compound - Generally low in tree density and also hold lower carbon stocks than the wet zone home gardens This project aims to develop such a useful system to cultivators all over the country. (2011). Dry zone landscape improvement. Cultivation Process Facilitator is a web based solution providing and guiding tool for farmers and cultivators in dry zone of Sri Lanka. Water management regimes and agroecological zones of Sri Lanka. 1. Leopards (Panther pardus kotiya), sambhur (Cervus unicolour), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and grey langurus (Presbytis entellus) are the other most common animals in the forest. The available information on cattle and buffalo production in Dry Zone of Batticaloa District is scanty. Shalini Rajakaruna . Most notable animal species in these forests is the Elephant (Elephaus maximus), that inhabits the dry zone evergreen forests. They mainly depended on agriculture to survive. Better to carry your own food, becouse by December 2016, the food stalls inside the park were not functioning. Sri Lanka has 6 months changing weather pattern. Vitex altissima produces hardwood that needed for manufacturing furniture and the tree is called Milla in Sinhala language and Kaaddamanakku in Tamil. The fruit of the tree attracts the toque macaque monkeys (Macaca sinica). Board of Study in Plant Sciences . Therefore, the large part of Sri Lanka is benefitted from the winter monsoon (May to October). Ecology of Dry Evergreen Forest. Red cassia with attractive, large paired leaves, brilliant yellow flowers and cylindrical fruit pods that appears like giant black beans, is the most attractive ornamental tree in the dry zone forests. The Dry Zone of Sri Lanka extends from the south-east of the island, all through the eastern and northern lowlands. 17,736 km², or 37%, of the ecoregion is in protected areas. See also. Large variety of dry zone plants are scattered around and must visit place. Dry zone is closely related to the early history of Sri Lanka and the ancient Sri Lankan culture flourished in this part of the country. 35. The crops grown under dry-zone or rain-fed conditions include nutritionally vital crops like pulses (a source of proteins, nearly 80 per cent of pulses is grown in rain-fed areas), oilseeds (a source of fats, grown under rain-fed conditions); groundnut, jute and mesta (nearly the whole of it grown under rain-fed agriculture); staple food like jowar, bajra (about 90 per cent of it grown in the dry zones), maize and … The Dry Zone has a climax vegetation of dry evergreen forest and moist deciduous forest, with forests giving way to a stunted, shrubby, xerophytic (drought-tolerant) vegetation in its driest parts. The winter monsoon (from May to October), brings fairly heavy rain on a large area of Sri Lanka. While Sri Lanka continues to boast a rich biodiversity, more efforts are required to safeguard the environment. Studies on lesser known and under utilized plants in the dry zone. Dry Zone Inter Zone. It is the Biggest Botanical Gardens in Sri Lanka, approx. One distinct character that makes this tree so popular is the termite resistant capability of its wood. The natural cover for this expanse is the dry evergreen forest, that varies locally in plant species richness according to rainfall. Most rain falls during the December-to-March northeast monsoon season, and it is mostly dry the rest of the year. Goat rearing has been identified as a viable option The dry-zone dry evergreen forests most closely resemble the East Deccan dry evergreen forests of India's southeast coast. It is built well planned and the best place to see and learn about dry zone plants. According to Sannasgala (1990), people in Sri Lanka knew to obtain fire and undertake pottery as early as the 6th century B. C. In the beginning of the recorded history, people were mainly concentrated in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Animal husbandry is poorly developed in the district although suitable land is available (Gunasena, 1990). Sesame . The dry zone has been commonly used as a distinct bioclimatic zone in Sri Lanka. The areas with Dry zone forests are flooded in the months of October, November, December and January, through the heavy monsoonal rain. 93-103. Rajarata Farm’s large scale planting of mango was initially confined to the popular variety recommended by the Dept of Agriculture, namely Karthakolomban or KC. The trees can be easily recognized by its trifoliate or three-leaf arrangements. Soya Bean . Soil and water conservation for Dry Zone of Sri Lanka 1. Presently okra is successfully cultivated in the districts of Hambantota, Kurunagala, Ratnapura and Matale. A new type of forest", "A new forest vegetation type in Sri Lanka: Dry Canal-associated Evergreen Forest", Southwestern Sri Lanka rivers and streams,, Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Department of Wildife Conservation (2008). Other ecoregions in Sri Lanka are the Sri Lankan Wet Zone, the Sri Lankan dry zone, the Southwestern Sri Lanka Rivers and Streams, and the Wet and South Indian Shelf. Tree ferns, bamboo, palm, … 3. 10.5167/uzh-59037. tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, "Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests", "Ancient Sri Lankans built canals. Droughts can severely impact on human, natural environment, animal, Get details of Location, timings and contact. Today dry zone is also densely populated like most parts of the country and makes huge pressure by the human for resources on this green cover. The dry-zone dry evergreen forests are home to most of the Sri Lanka's 6000 Sri Lankan elephants (Elephas maximus maximus), the island's indigenous subspecies of Asian elephant.[8][9]. In the Wet Zone, tropical wet evergreen forest dominates in the lowlands, and submontane and montane evergreen forests prevail in the highlands. The three major climatic zones are named as wet, intermediate and dry zones which receive an average annual rainfall of >5000-2500 mm, 2500-1750 and 1750-900 mm, respectively. Most wildlife reserves of Sri Lanka such as Wilpattu national park, Yala national park, Minneriya wildlife reserve and Galoya national park coming under dry zone forest type. Dry zone forests are also very rich in birdlife and attract a large number of migrants bird species, especially during the winter season in the northern hemisphere. Dry Zone. Providing knowledge and training on botany and floriculture. Soil and Water ConservationSoil and Water Conservation Induction Training for EU - SDDP staff November 2013 Dr. P.B. Today strict rules and regulation keep the forests in safe at large. But places under the influence of Summer monsoon get about half of the rainfall of winter monsoon. Better to hire a vehicle otherwise you would miss most important information. This rainfall pattern divides the island into a wet and dry zone and creates a distinct wet and dry cultivation season. DRY ZONE FORESTS . in the Southeastern region of the dry zone of Sri Lanka which is characterized by tropical dry evergreen mixed forests and tropical thorn forests. The sweet, yellowish, delicious seasonal fruit is loved by the bear and many other animal species in the forest. Dry monsoon wind that prevails in the region during the South-West monsoon resulted in scorching heat and dry weather in the area. system available, at present in Sri Lanka that coordinates and supplies such knowledge to cultivators. Today as much as 75% of the remaining intact forest cover in the island is categorized under dry-zone forest. This is the leading forest type in the dry zone region – means that freshly cleared lands can be turned into a forest of this type with forest regeneration. The southwest region and the central hills of Sri Lanka have the most luxuriant forest cover. The island is nourished with 103 rivers running across the country from the central hills to the ocean. Their legacy today? Plan to visit Dry Zone Botanical Garden, Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing …the colonization schemes of the Dry Zone (including those of the Mahaweli Development Program launched in the early 1970s) and, second, the adoption of yield-increasing technology. This is the latest addition to the list of botanical gardens in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests are made up mostly of evergreen trees, which distinguish them from the deciduous trees that characterize most other tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregions. The dry zone forests with riverine areas show much wider species diversity than the forest without riverine vegetation. The TomEJC or TJC Mango received formal recognition from the Department of Agriculture in 2003 and is now a recommended variety for the Dry & intermediate Zones of Sri Lanka. Berrya cordifolia (English: Trincomalee word, Sinhala: halmilla, Tamil:chavandalai), is a water-resistant wood used in the boat construction and manufacturing casks. The ecoregion covers an area of 48,400 square kilometers (18,700 sq mi), about 75%, of the island of Sri Lanka, with the exception of the islands' southwestern corner and Central Highlands, home to the Sri Lanka lowland rain forests and Sri Lanka montane rain forests ecoregions, respectively, and the northern Jaffna Peninsula, which is part of the Deccan thorn scrub forests ecoregion. I found it very interesting. Garden is so big, you won’t be able to cover the whole of it by foot. Promoting medicinal herbs. Analysis of Seed Plants of Sri Lanka 340 Potential Applications of the National Red List and the Way Forward 346 References 353 Provisional Checklist of Sea Urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) of Sri Lanka … Good for those who are interested in plants, trees, birds and butterflies. Find the reviews and ratings to know better. These civilizations expanded in the areas for thousands of years making them most populated areas in the country. The topography is generally low, and the landscape is dotted with isolated inselbergs. In the highest areas of the Central Highlands, forests tend to be sparse … The central mountain range that stretched from north to south, in the middle of the island, barricades the South-West monsoon reaching North-East part of the country. Dry-zone forests are to be found in the areas that are under the influence of summer monsoon, where the rainfall is lower. Ex-situ conservation of dry and arid zone plants of Sri Lanka. (2017). The ecoregion has several plant communities. 300 acres. Tropical rainforests are characterised by a multi-storeyed vegetation where the crowns of domin… This is the main rainy season of this region while these forests are not blessed with the South-West monsoon (April to October). Borham, Maneshka (2018). It’s hard to believe such a place exists in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Okra is one of the most popular fruit vegetables grown in Wet, Intermediate and Dry zone of Sri Lanka. People have easy access to most of the dry zone and a visit to one of them will make a most memorable occasion in life. This forest type is also known as the semi-evergreen forest; it is the dominating forest type in the lowland, dry areas of the country. This is second largest botanical garden in Sri Lanka and first after the independence. Trees and plants of dry zone forests of Sri Lanka. The first ever dry-zone botanic gardens in Sri Lanka at Mirijjawila in Hambantota have gained wide popularity among environmentalists, botanists, sightseers, school children, teachers, scholars, and tourists from various countries around the globe.